История развития транзисторов

1924 год. В журнале «Радио Новости» предугадано: «скоро… мы поговорим о схеме с 3…6 кристаллами, как сейчас говорим о схеме с 3…6 лампами. … — такое время наступит».(Речь в статье «Сенсационное изобретение» шла о кристадине Лосева, тогда очень популярного, благодаря способности усиливать радиосигналы).
1947 г. Создание первого точечного транзистора. (Сначала его называли «германиевый триод»).
1947 г. При создании теории транзистора с p-n-переходами, Шокли изобретает плоскостной биполярный транзистор.
В 1948 году в Европе появился точечный транзистор, именуемый «переходным»(«транзитрон»), который в 1951 году серийно выпускают в Париже для нужд телефонии.
1949 г. В СССР создан германиевый транзистор (С1…С4).
1950 г. Разработан плоскостной биполярный транзистор.
1950…1952 гг. СССР производит германиевые транзисторы.
— Массовое производство германиевых биполярных транзисторов на выращенных переходах — («Шокли»).
1952 г. Выпуск опытных сплавных транзисторов.
1953 г. Серийное производство точечных транзисторов (ТС1…ТС7).
- Массовое применение транзисторов в электронных устройствах. В быту первые портативные радиоприемники называли — «транзистором».
- Выпущен первый в СССР плоскостной (в то время — слоистый) германиевый транзистор.
1954 г. Разработан мощный транзистор с коллекторным током до 1 А и мощностью до 25 Вт.
1955 г. Серийный выпуск плоскостных транзисторов (П1…П3).
1957 г. Освоено производство кремниевых транзисторов методом двойной диффузии и химического травления. (Стало возможным получать сотни транзисторов на одной пластине).
1958. Выпущен кремниевый меза-транзистор 2N696, (100 экземпляров — приобрёл IBM по $150 за штуку).
1959. В начале марта Жан Эрни первым разработал кремниевый планарный транзистор.
1961 г. Название «полупроводниковые триоды» в СССР уточнено термином «транзисторы».
1963 г. Разработаны планарные транзисторы 2Т312 и безкорпусный 2Т319 (для гибридных схем).
1964 г. Выпуск первых планарных транзисторов в СССР.
1968 г. Созданы первые гибридные тонкопленочные интегральные схемы на основе безкорпусных планарных транзисторов (КТ318).
1969 г. Транзисторы в металлическом корпусе (TO3, ТО36, ТО66) переводят на выпуск в  пластмассовом (TO220 и др.).
1970 г. Серийное производство плоскостных и дрейфовых германиевых и кремниевых транзисторов.
2003 г. Представлен силовой транзистор технологии НПТ (технологии тонких пластин). Это повысило температуру перехода до 175°С.

plastmassovyi-korpus-transistora

Транзистор в пластмассовом корпусе Супер-247

2004 г. Выпуск семейства силовых транзисторов в корпусах ТО247 и ТО220, а с 2005 года и в корпусе супер-247.
2006 г. Выпуск мощных (от 5 до 180 Вт) транзисторов из нитрида галлия на частоты до 4000 мГц .
2011 г. Серийное производство транзисторов из нитрида галлия (GaN).
2016 г. Промышленный выпуск СВЧ транзисторов из нитрида галлия..


— В настоящее время доминируют направления микроминиатюризации, улучшения качественных показателей и характеристик выпускаемых транзисторов.

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