Этапы развития микросхем

Потребовалось много лет длительных по времени изысканий, удачных и неудачных опытов и экспериментов, пока микросхемы достигли своего нынешнего совершенства.

vid-korpusa-mikroshemy

Микросхема в корпусе PDIP-8

Поэтапная хронология:

* 1958…1959 г.г. Первые разработки интегральных схем (ИС).
* 1962 г. Начато серийное производство интегральных схем (ИС).

* 1963 г. Разработан бескорпусный транзистор, как первооснова гибридных схем. Начался этап микроминиатюризации схем.

* 1963 г. Разработаны первые отечественные ИС ДТЛ.

* 1960-е годы. Применив чип-микросхемы собственной разработки (взамен отдельных транзисторов) в калькуляторах и ПК,  Fairchild Semiconductor многократно уменьшила их размеры и увеличила производительность.

* 1964 г. Созданы МС ТТЛ с резистивными связями (20 элементов на кристалл) а позже серийно выпущена ТС-100, в кристалле которой интегрировано до 37 элементов.

* 1964…1965 г.г. Разработаны ИС со степенью интеграции до 100 элементов в кристалле и топологической нормой (минимальным размером элемента) до 10 мкм.

* 1966 г. Запущены в производство —
планарные, логические и линейные интегральные схемы.

* 1968 г. Выпущены гибридные тонкопленочные ИС на планарных бескорпусных транзисторах.

mikroshema-k237* 1968 г. Серийный выпуск цифровых (К155) и линейных (К237) ИМС для широкого применения.

* 1971 г. Выпущен первый 4-х разрядный микропроцессор для ПК (Intel 4004).

* 1972 г. Intel выпустила уже 8-разрядный микропроцессор к ПК.
* В 1973 г. cтепень интеграции ИС для наручных часов составила 1500 триодов на кристалл с размерами 2 x 2 мм.
* 1974 г. Завод «Ангстрем» создал первые в СССР микропроцессоры.

* 1975 г. Серийное производство микросхем серий 100 и 500  (к ЭВМ).

* 1975…1976 г.г. Выпуск ИС со степенью интеграции до 20 000 триодов на кристалл.

* 1978…1979 г.г. Впервые выпущена микро-эвм на одном кристалле.

* 1980…1981 г.г. Создана отечественная EEPROM 64k (на U пит. +5 V).

* 1983 г. Серийный выпуск БМК (базовые матричные кристаллы) для ЭВМ отечественного производства.

* 1985 г. Intel выпустила уже 32-разрядный микропроцессор для ПК.

* 1989 г. Серийный выпуск 32-разрядных микропроцессоров Intel- 486 для ПК с ОС «Windows».

* 1992 г. DEC выпустила 64-разрядный микропроцессор Alpha.

* 1997 г. Завод «Микрон» начал выпуск СБИС с топологической нормой 0,8 мкм.

* 2013 г. Apple применила 64-разрядный микропроцессор Apple А7 в смартфонах iPhone-5S.

* В наши дни процесс микроминиатюризации неуклонно растёт и большая часть микросхем выпускается в чип-корпусах для поверхностного монтажа (SMD). Массово используя микросхемы в SMD-корпусе достигли значительного уменьшения габаритов современных устройств.
Разрабатываются физические основы, нарабатывается опыт, проводятся лабораторные  и заводские испытания интегральных схем наноэлектронного поколения (СБИС) с топологической нормой ниже 0,1 мкм.. В перспективе наноэлектроника сможет принести миру много нового, полезного, ранее не достижимого.

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