Этапы развития кристаллических диодов

1833 г. Фарадеем, после ряда экспериментов открыты полупроводники.
В 1874 г. учёный Браун, первым пишет в статье об особенности полупроводников проводить ток только при одной полярности, что в принципе не соответствовало закону Ома. В то время ученый мир не заинтересовало это открытие.

vyprjamitelnyi-diod

Диод в пластмассовом корпусе КД247

7 мая 1895 г. Полупроводниковые свойства твердого тела применены А.С.Поповым в опытах регистрации электромагнитных волн.
1900 г. А.С.Попов создал первый в мире твёрдотельный детектор.
В 1906 г. учёный Пикард запатентовал детектор на кристалле полупроводника.
1907 г. Генри Роунд открывает светодиод описав явление свечения в контакте карборундового детектора.
1910 г. Физик Уильям Иккл впервые демонстрирует «Генерирующий» детектор». Необычное свойство полупроводников опять же не заинтересовало ученых.
1922 г. После ряда опытов Лосевым описан усиливающий и генерирующий детектор, указав, что нв вольт-амперной характеристике контакта кристаллов цинкита имеется круто-падающий N-образный участок.
Открытый Лосевым двухполюсник послужил первоосновой туннельного диода.
Экспериментально он подтверждает значительное усиливающее действие кристалла с цинкитом при использовании в качестве детектора в детекторном приёмнике, подобрав режим, близкий к генерации.
В 1923 г. Лосеву выдан патент на «Детекторный приемник-гетеродин» (Кристадин Лосева).
1924 г. Гетеродинный прием получил массовое применение и кристадин («кристалл гетеродин») стал очень популярен.
1922—1927 г.г. Грёндаль и Гейгер изобрели и разработали медно-закисный выпрямительный диод.
В 1930-е годы разработаны селеновые выпрямительные диоды на смену медно-закисным, как более совершенные.
1923 г, Лосев экспериментально открыл «электронные генераторы света» (светодиоды) и за высокую яркость предугадал перспективу их использования как источник света. Явление электролюминесценции на западе называли «свет Лосева». Лосеву первому выдан патент на изобретение «светового электролюминесцентного реле-прибора».
1936 г. Физик Жорж Дестрио также обнаруживает свечение («эффект Дестрио»), но автором открытия явления инжекционной люминесценции он считает Лосева.
1942 г. Начало промышленного выпуска кремниевых и германиевых точечных диодов.
1960-1969 г. Изделия из полупроводников внедряются во все отрасли народного хозяйства.
С 1970 года разработка и широкое использование полупроводниковых диодов различных типов: высокочастотные, СВЧ и импульсные диоды, варикапы, тиристоры, диодные матрицы, светодиоды и фотодиоды.
В настоящее время продолжается дальнейшее развитие полупроводниковых диодов с учетом современных требований (в том числе диоды в SMD-корпусах, светоизлучающие диоды, светодиодные матрицы).

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